Childhood cancer is a conundrum in that we don''t really think of children as developing cancer. We usually associate cancer as a disease for older individuals. We also think of it as a disease that is in some ways self inflicted. We know that an unhealthy diet, high in fat, is associated with an increased risk of breast of cancer. There are certain diets that can increase your risk to colon cancer, and the ultimate carcinogen smoking, is associated with not only lung cancer but bladder cancer and other diseases as well. When a young child is diagnosed with cancer, certainly they haven''t done anything to themselves or their diet, and of course they haven''t smoked, so how is it that a young child at the age of six months or even six years develops a malignancy?
We know that there has been a slight increase in the incidents of childhood malignancy. If we review national data there was a slight 4% increase in the overall incidence of childhood cancer between 1973 and 1988. This slight increase has also been confirmed in recent data from the 1990s. Certainly there were some pre-hereditary and environmental conditions that do predispose certain children to a malignancy; but as a rule, these are usually associated with some immunodeficiency type syndromes which affect the immune system''s ability to recognize abnormal (cancer) cells.psoridex creme
To put the childhood cancer problem in perspective, there will be approximately 12,500 children diagnosed with a childhood malignancy in North America this year. In concrete terms, this means that every day that school is in session, two classrooms full of children will be diagnosed with a malignancy. What does it take to treat a child with cancer? It takes a community! Many of these cancers are treated with radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and/or bone marrow transplants. All of these therapeutic modalities should be readily available in the child''s community in order to receive the best possible care. The standard of care for children with cancer is the use of the Children''s Oncology Group, approved National Cancer Institute (NCI) protocols. These are the standard of care and can be found on the Cure Search website or the nih.gov website.psorifix creme erfahrungen
Kosair Children''s Hospital has active members of the Children''s Oncology Group and all the latest protocols available. A team approach has been developed at Kosair Children''s Hospital and it is an approach that includes not only the Norton Healthcare organization with Kosair Children''s Hospital, but also the University of Louisville Department of Pediatrics and the Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. Through these collaborative efforts children in our community are put on a standard of care protocol which is available at other major research centers around the country. This is a complete team effort that starts from the time that a child enters Kosair Children''s Hospital.psoridex prezzo
From the time patients enter the special Children''s Cancer Care Center at Kosair, which has 20 general beds and four bone marrow transplant beds, they are treated in a special environment. This unique unit does not allow infectious patients to be admitted. There is attention to the minute details. For example, the windows are specially treated so that no air can get in them, and there is a special air handling system where the air flows out of each room to decrease any possible cross contamination. Additionally, care is taken so that food delivery and cleaning do not contaminate the room. Nurses are specifically trained in the admission of chemotherapy and are Certified Pediatric Oncology Nurse Specialists. The Center is professionally supported by the care of five physicians, six nurse practitioners, a pharmacy, a child life specialist, and a psychologist.macho man wirkung
The most common types of childhood malignancies seen include approximately half of non-solid tumors or the lymphnoid/blood disorders such as lymphomas, leukemias and Hodgkin''s disease as well as solid tumors which would include children with brain tumors, kidney tumors, sympathetic nervous system (Neuroblastoma tumors), bone tumors and soft tissue sarcomas (Rhabdomyosarcoma).darum
As a member of the Children''s Oncology Group, hospitals are required to pay special attention to detail and the delivery of precise therapy during specific times. When these data are reviewed Kosair Children''s Hospital has always ranked very high on the standard of care that is delivered. During the last 20 years the cure rate for childhood leukemia has gone from approximately 30% to as high as 85-90%. It is now estimated that approximately one in 800 children above the age of 20 will be long-term childhood cancer survivors. However, the second most common childhood malignancy is recurrent acute lymphocytic leukemia for which most types would require a bone marrow transplant or a stem cell transplant.vigrx plus
What has made it possible to say that the cure rate for childhood cancer has increased to approximately 85-90% for some types of leukemia? Over the past 20 years we have learned more about cell biology and the cell cycle. More judicious use of chemotherapy drugs and specially targeted drugs have led to some of those breakthroughs.el macho prezzo
In the field of Neuroblastoma therapy the addition of intense chemotherapy followed by a stem cell transplant has added to the survival rate. Prior to this intense drug regimen, survival for young children with Neuroblastoma was about 5-10%. With intensive chemotherapy and stem cell transplant, survival has increased to 50%.vigrx plus
Targeted immunotherapy and chemotherapy have made significant increases in the curability of childhood cancer. The addition of the tyrosine kinase inhibitions as a class of chemo therapeutic agents is very exciting at this time. These drugs specifically are targeted at the cell cycle of the cancer cell with less toxicity for the normal cells in the body. Our understanding that stem cells can be harvested from peripheral blood has also added to increased cure rates for children with Neuroblastoma.dentysta warszawa
In summary, the increased cure rates for childhood cancer (Leukemia 85% Neuroblastoma 50%, Hodgkin''s disease 90%, Wilm''s Tumor 95%) has been achieved through clinical trials using chemotherapy, stem cell transplants and immune therapy. Supportive care measured with attention to decreasing infections and the use of clinical trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, all add up to the fact that one in 800 young adults is now a childhood cancer survivor!
Salvatore Bertolone, MD is the Chief of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and a Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Louisville School of Medicine.